This kind of the telephoto lens is a type of long-focus-length lens. Some people call it >>long glas<< (it is really long). You can take a photo with this lens, whatever, you want to photography, you can really close it up. Typically focal lengths for this kind of lenses are 300mm through 600 mm (it could also be more). The super telephoto lens will be used for pictures in sport, air as well as animal or bird. For example, you can buy a prime lens with a fixed focal length (f.e. Nikkor 300mm f/4) or a super telephoto lens (I’m using a Canon 100-400mm f/4.5-5.6L IS USM).
If you want to shoot photos also at difficult lighting conditions (with f74 or f/2.8), it can be really expensiv (f.e. the Canon 500mm f/4 cost circa $ 9,0000 (6.400 €)) – you can also work with a smaller diaphragm at difficult lighting conditions and freez the moves. If your sport pictures are basiclly at day light you dont have to dig deep in your pockets (f.e. my Conon 100-400mm was around $2,200 (1.500 €)). By the way sometimes you can get a used super telephoto lens for a few hundred dollars / euros less than the new one, you just have to search for it and I would prefer to search in my area or places I will be soon and it should be cash and carry. The advantage for you you can to test it (there can be written a lot on auction platforms) and you have no high shippingcosts. If you have own a lens like the Canon, you should own a monopod that you can fix on the lens (it works pretty well).
I take this kind of lens if I’m taking pictures…
of sports of animals.